Basic Working Principle of Arduino Main Power Source of This System

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The main power source of this system is the solar panel that generates electricity to be stored in the battery. The battery’s current is controlled by an Arduino via a relay. and the alternate power supply is The transformer is controlled by an Arduino in the same way as the mains (battery) power supply. 

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The Arduino is programmed to detect the current supplied by the battery. When the battery current drops to a level that is dangerous for the battery, the Arduino will immediately stop supplying the battery via a relay. and will order to supply electricity from the transformer instead through the device

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The same instant relay Until the solar panel produces electricity stored in the battery at a level that is ready to supply electricity to the load again, the Arduino will switch the power supply from the battery again.

used equipment

  1. Arduino UNO R3 is a microcontroller board. for processing and controlling the operation of the system
  2. Channel Relay 3.3VDC (2-channel relay) is an electronic module that switches the power supply with electromagnetic contacts.
  3. Voltage measurement module 0-24VDC is an electronic module that measures the voltage supplied from the battery. to send data to Arduino
  4. Solar cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy.
  5. A 12VDC battery is a battery that stores electrical charge from the solar panel. which is the main power supply of the Arduino Solar Hybrid project
  6. Battery charge controller is a device that controls the charge from the solar panel.
  7. 12VDC lamps are electrical devices that provide light from LED lamps.
  8. A 12VDC transformer is an electrical device that converts AC 220V AC power to DC 12V DC power, which is a backup power supply for the Arduino Solar Hybrid project.
  9. A 3A fuse breaker switch is an electrical device that protects against overcurrent. Or the current from 2 sources flows into the load at the same time. This may be caused by the damage of the relay device.
  10. Breadboard (experiment board) is a device that adds enough wire connections to meet the needs of the circuit.
  11. Jumper cables are wires for connecting all devices of the circuit.

Workflow

This electric power support system project There will be the heart of the work at the Arduino, with the main helper is 2 Channel Relay (2-channel relay), in which the relay device receives command signals from the Arduino for switching power supply from 2 power sources: 1) a battery that stores electricity from the solar panel and 2) a transformer, where the Arduino receives data from the voltage measurement module all the time. When does the voltage from the current drop to a level that is detrimental to the battery? (Less than 40% discharge capacity, or voltage below 12.12V. The Arduino will trip the battery channel relay and send a signal to the other relay channel to discharge the transformer instead. Therefore, it is considered a system that supports energy between 2 power sources. “Solar cells help us save even more electricity bills.”

  1. While the lamp is on, it is powered by battery power. which produces energy by solar cells When the voltage from the battery drops below 40% or less than 12.12V, this is a potentially dangerous level for the battery. (deteriorates prematurely The voltage measuring module sends data to the Arduino for processing and issuing commands.
  2. The Arduino commands the relay to cut off the battery power supply. and instruct the relay to supply electricity from the transformer instead
  3. When the solar cell charges the battery capacity is more than 80% or the voltage is more than 12.46V, the voltage measurement module will send data to Arduino for processing and command.
  4. Arduino commands the relay to cut off the power supply from the transformer. And instruct the relay to supply current to the battery as before until the battery voltage according to item 1.

Many people may wonder why they choose to use only DC current, DC power from the battery from the solar panel, and DC power from the transformer as well, because the DC power is best suited to the beginning of the development of the electrical system. For beginners who have no experience in electrical work DC power can be safely used to start creative projects. And this project will be an important knowledge and experience opening. For using 220V AC current that is dangerous (if used without knowledge and understanding) in future projects with larger and more complex electrical systems.

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